El mayor Tratado de Libre Comercio: Asia-Pacífico toma la delantera al resto del mundo

Madrid, 8 de diciembre del 2020.-    El capitalismo nunca duerme. A pesar de sufrir la mayor pandemia sanitaria y recesión mundial de los últimos 100 años, la región Asia Pacífico ha dado un golpe en la mesa para firmar el mayor tratado de libre comercio. ¿Qué ocurrirá en 2021, 2022, 2023…?. El liderazgo económico mundial tiene nombres asiáticos a corto, medio plazo.

Las nuevas generaciones de emprendedores quizás estudien su carreras universitarias en China, Cora del Sur o Australia para conocer las razones de su actual éxito. Quizás la compañías deberán ampliar sus mercados hacia Asia-Pacífico para alcanzar aceptables niveles de rentabilidad. ¿Y este liderazgo económico tendrá consecuencias en los equilibrios geopolíticos?. En fin, para que los vivimos en  continua incertidumbre, conocer países de prosperidad y certidumbre, es toda una inspiración. La noticia ha sido la siguiente: 

Los mandatarios de una quincena de países de Asia-Pacífico han firmado el pasado mes de noviembre la creación de la Asociación Económica Integral Regional (RCEP), el mayor tratado de libre comercio del mundo.

El acuerdo, firmado virtualmente debido a la pandemia de la COVID-19, incluye a China, Japón, Corea del Sur, Australia y Nueva Zelanda, así como a los diez países de la Asociación de Naciones del Sudeste Asiático (ASEAN).

El tratado, que no incluye a Estados Unidos, supone un tercio de la economía global y un mercado de unos 2.300 millones de personas.

El acuerdo fue rubricado virtualmente en el marco de la cumbre de líderes de la ASEAN, formada por Birmania (Myanmar), Brunéi, Camboya, Filipinas, Indonesia, Laos, Malasia, Singapur, Tailandia y Vietnam.

La RCEP comenzó a negociarse en 2012 como una iniciativa de la ASEAN con aquellos países con los que ya tenía tratados de libre comercio (TLC): Australia, China, Corea del Sur, Japón, India y Nueva Zelanda.

Sin embargo, India decidió desmarcarse del acuerdo el año pasado ante el temor de verse inundada de productos más baratos, principalmente de China.

El “megacuerdo” rebajará los aranceles hasta el 90 por ciento y aborda asuntos como la economía digital, las inversiones y la propiedad intelectual, aunque no contiene regulaciones sobre los derechos laborales y el medio ambiente. Los expertos opinan que el tratado permitirá activar la economía y acelerar la recuperación tras el impacto de la pandemia de la covid-19 en los países de la región.

han criticado la RCEP por dar prioridad a los intereses de las multinacionales y desproteger a los pequeños productores, principalmente en el sector agrícola.

El presidente chino, Xi Jinping, ha hecho hoy una encendida defensa de la apertura económica y el multilaterialismo frente al proteccionismo de otros países para garantizar la recuperación económica tras la pandemia de covid-19.

“El proteccionismo y el unilateralismo están creciendo. Pero China no se ha detenido en su apertura. De hecho, hemos dado más pasos en nuestras políticas para abrir aún más el país”, ha señalado el líder chino durante su discurso en el Foro de Cooperación Económica Asia-Pacífico (APEC), organizado este año por Malasia, pero celebrado de forma virtual por la pandemia.

El presidente, que ha participado en una sesión previa a la cumbre de líderes del mañana, descarta que China se “desconecte” del resto de economías mundiales y criticó que el proteccionismo, las intimidaciones y las reacciones negativas a la globalización económica “añaden riesgo e incertidumbre a la economía mundial”.

“China está muy integrada en la economía global y en el sistema internacional. No revertiremos nuestro rumbo ni iremos contra nuestra tendencia histórica desconectándonos o formando un círculo pequeño para dejar fuera a los demás. La apertura permite a un país avanzar y el aislamiento lo frena”, advierte.

Esta nueva fase se asentará en la expansión de la demanda doméstica, en el desarrollo científico y tecnológico y en la profundización de las reformas para dinamizar el mercado.

China ha ganado influencia en la región con la firma el pasado domingo de la Asociación Económica Integral Regional (RCEP), el mayor tratado de libre comercio del mundo, que también incluye Japón, Corea del Sur, Australia, Nueva Zelanda y a los diez países de la Asociación de Naciones del Sudeste Asiático (ASEAN).

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